Valve sourcing goes international

Across many types of products in a selection of industries, the apply of combining assorted components from varied sources around the world is the rule, not the exception. Should this be a priority for a control valve user? For example, when an finish consumer discovers that several parts are being made in China (Figure 1), ought to the user fear in regards to the quality?
When dealing with a significant valve vendor, the reply is “no.” There shouldn’t be any room for doubt when the vendor has a number of checks and balances in place specializing in product high quality to ensure management valves function as designed, need minimal maintenance, carry out safely and operate within environmental rules.
Yet, regardless of such efforts by the seller, a control valve user might have questions on world sourcing and the country of origin. This article discusses how one major management valve vendor ensures product high quality. Many other control valve vendors observe the same or related procedures.
Quality specification brings international assurance
Emerson enforces a complete high quality specification for its Fisher management valves that should be met by suppliers of pressure-containing and structural steel castings. The quality specification contains greater than a dozen requirements that apply to the next areas:
Supplier qualification
Welding procedures
Marking inspection and testing
Tryout and pattern castings
Production castings
Certification of compliance
Supplier qualification — Suppliers endure a rigorous qualification course of. The process totally investigates a possible supplier’s capacity to fulfill material specs and applicable international codes and requirements — as nicely as particular requirements associated to component manufacture. In the case of castings, a foundry is considered “qualified” when it passes a critical evaluation by Fisher’s engineers.
The foundry must demonstrate a report of qualification by a third-party inspection agency and conform to varied standards, corresponding to ISO 9001:2000, ASME, A2LA, PED and others. It should move a evaluate of its high quality program in addition to on-site audits of the foundry’s processes and procedures such as welding, heat treatment and non-destructive examination. Additional proof of efficiency is decided by analysis of tryout castings to verify specifications are met.
Welding procedures — Welding is used during the production and upgrading of castings, similar to when radiographic examination is required. Welding requirements state that procedures and welder qualifications must meet ASME Section IX (or EN ISO 15614-1 and ISO 9606-1) qualification standards. Similarly, each lot of weld filler must adjust to ASME/AWS chemical evaluation specs. In Europe, compliance should be to EN499. Weld filler will must have actual chemistry.
Marking inspection and testing — Valve body castings have markings (Figure 2) that determine the foundry that poured the casting and that indicate the warmth code. Material identification can additionally be sometimes shown on the body casting, such as CC, CF8M, CN7M and others.
Casting checks — Emerson technicians conduct each visual inspections and mechanical checks on pressure-retaining castings.
As-cast exterior and inner surfaces are inspected visually for unacceptable irregularities, including scorching tears and cracks, shrink, sand inclusions, veining and rat tails. Mechanical testing includes a hydrostatic stress take a look at to substantiate the leak tightness of a control valve’s pressure-retaining parts, together with the body and bonnet castings. The check process entails a fixture that closes off cavities that would be pressurized in service after which subjects the component to the hydrostatic shell take a look at strain applicable for the valve physique materials and sophistication.
ASME B16.34 units out the hydrostatic check strain to make use of for metal and alloy valves. It’s calculated by multiplying the working pressure by 1.5 and rounding to the subsequent larger 25 psig increment. Any visually detectable weeping or leaking via the strain boundary partitions that are part of the valve assembly is a compulsory trigger for rejection (Figure 3).
Compliance with these specs have to be ensured, in addition to with different necessities relating to supplies.
Figure 2. Markings identify the foundry and supplies of the valve physique. These management valve our bodies were cast at an Emerson-approved foundry in China.
Meeting materials requirements
Valve casting integrity and high quality begins with specs that call not just for premium supplies, but also for the materials that work finest in the meant purposes. These application requirements include energy and ductility as nicely as resistance to sure factors, together with the make-up of the controlled fluid, operating temperature and circulate velocity.
For instance, chemical composition have to be managed precisely to achieve an alloy’s supposed efficiency stage. Carbon metal castings for valves intended to be used in oil and gasoline purposes should meet NACE SP0472 recommendations that chemical composition be controlled to lower than 0.43% carbon equivalency. The lower carbon content improves weldability and reduces the potential for stress cracking by hydrogen sulfide usually found in oil and fuel manufacturing and processing purposes.
Another instance of supplies tied to a particular software embody those for upstream oil and fuel manufacturing. Many of those functions occur within the arctic regions of Russia and Canada. For this service, castings are ASME SA 352 Grade LCC, while forgings must meet ASME SA 350 Grade LF2.
Many products with world use now adjust to twin materials specs to meet ASME and European requirements. For instance, metal castings are specified and authorized to both ASME SA216 Grade WCC and EN 10213 Grade 1.0619. Emerson typically provides its personal stringent requirements such as the heat treating of excessive nickel alloys, extra demanding chemical composition or particular welding procedures.
In the previous, Emerson has supplemented typical ASTM and ASME specs to achieve the enhanced corrosion-resistance ranges and excessive temperature capabilities supplied by high-nickel alloys. เครื่องมือที่ใช้วัดความดันเลือด is now achieved by the brand new ASTM specification A990, which addresses both material composition and high quality.
Figure 3. Pressure-retaining components of a valve are subjected to hydrostatic testing to judge the parts’ integrity. Visible leakage or seepage by way of a casting means automatic rejection.
Qualifying a foundry
As part of a prospective foundry’s qualification, Emerson inspects and exams Fisher valve castings. Non-destructive testing radiography is used as a monitoring tool. ASTM A990 Class C requires radiography of the primary casting of each sample. The acceptance criterion is Level three for classes A, B and C. For categories D via G, no cracking, sizzling tears or inserts are allowed as specified in ASTM A990.
High-nickel alloy castings provide improved performance in corrosive services and elevated temperatures. However, if high-nickel castings are improperly ready, they can pose main issues, together with poor integrity, poor weldability and lower-than-expected corrosion resistance. A systematic foundry qualification course of can be followed to avoid these casting difficulties.
The foundry should solid a 1-inch thick high-nickel test plate (Figure 4) that meets ASTM Material Specification A990. It’s tough to cast because of the distinction in cross-section between the bottom of the weld cavity (in the center) and the overall 1-inch thickness of the plate. The cavity of the poured plate is then crammed with a matching composition weld materials. The welder and process for this step must meet the standards outlined in Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Test bars (3/8-inch thick) are cut from the plate and bent over a 1½-inch mandrel per ASTM A990 into a U-shape.
The bars are examined carefully for cracking along the weld heat-affected zone, casting grain boundaries or dendrite boundaries. Failure to fulfill quality requirements will outcome in the disqualification of the foundry from further consideration. Casting patterns should be devoted solely to high-nickel alloy service. Use of carbon metal or a stainless-steel pattern is unacceptable because of variations in solidification properties.
Shrinkage rates for gates, risers and other equipment can differ considerably. Once the dedicated pattern tools for every of those parts has been secured, try-out castings are poured for every pattern-alloy combination. The castings are then radiographed.
The intent is to disclose any inherent casting defects — corresponding to shrinkage — that have to be eliminated by modifying the pattern rigging.
Figure four. In a foundry analysis, a casting is full of weld filler, then sliced to yield a bar for bend testing.
A certified foundry
Emerson has used a Chinese foundry (Figure 5) to solid Fisher valve bodies for more than a decade. After an exploratory visit by procurement and manufacturing specialists, followed by an extensive qualification course of, the foundry was permitted and has been delivering high-quality valve physique and bonnet castings to Fisher valve manufacturing websites.
To assist guarantee the standard of the castings it produces, the Chinese foundry has carried out international requirements and has obtained certifications for German TUV and CE, Norway DNV, German Lloyd’s and American ABS, and has passed international high quality system certifications of ISO 9001 and QS -9000.
The foundry has been awarded Gold Medals three times consecutively within the Beijing International Casting, Forging and Industrial Boiler Expo. It has twice acquired an Excellent Supplier award from Emerson.
Figure 5. This Chinese foundry meets all specifications for casting valve bodies.
Control valve customers can be concerned after they study certain valve components aren’t made in the united states or Europe, however elsewhere. Perhaps their concern stems from experience with other inferior merchandise, corresponding to appliances, garments or electronics made in these nations and bought on-line. But if the valve components are being provided to a major management valve vendor that has gone to nice lengths to qualify the foundry or provider, then customers could be assured the valves meet all specs.

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